Bike Futures Conference Materials
On this page we have made available speakers presentations from the conference (where permission has been given), some photos and a videoed presentation. Should you have any queries regarding any of the supplied material please contact Lucy Coté at Key Conference Solutions on (03) 9870 2611. or firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Dutch cycling culture, Born on the bike
Founder and Executive Director of Mobycon
“Each society develops in a unique way and mobility is always an important part of change in society.”
Strategist and trendwatcher Johan wants his company to play a role in the development of smart solutions and cooperation in mobility. One smart mobility solution the Dutch employ is the use of the bicycle. It is not only smart within the mobility system, but also within other important policy fields like health, social cohesion and the environment. It is his challenge to retrofit Dutch experiences to local circumstances abroad.
Johan is the Founder and Executive Director of Mobycon. As a leader and/or counsellor of projects he has a broad experience in a range of topics. Some examples are:
• Local authority cycle plans including: Nijmegen, Delft, Groningen, Best, Soest, Vlaardingen and other towns in the Netherlands
• Local authority cycle parking plans including: Rotterdam, Nijmegen, Sneek, Waalwijk and others
• Second edition ‘Guide for cycle parking facilities’, CROW
• Sustainable safety for cycle traffic network: region of Zeeuwsch Vlaanderen
• Provincial cycle network plan, Province of North Brabant; Province of Overijssel
• Various local authority traffic safety plans in Belgium
• Co-leader regarding the legislation of cycle traffic, Region Piemonte, Italy
• Accessibility of trams, including field work in England, Germany and France
• Car sharing in Europe, SAVE programme EC (in co-operation with consultants from Ireland, England and Germany)
• Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) for cars, Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management
• Road safety plan City Centre Amsterdam
• Supplementary public transport plans for: Maastricht, Delft, Rotterdam, Breda, Apeldoorn, Region of Utrecht, Province of Overijssel, Gelderland, North Brabant and others
• Strategy and implementation of the Novem project “Driving slower is driving faster”
• Strategy on accessibility for the public transport, Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management.
Prof. Ross Garnaut, AO
Biography: Professor Ross Garnaut (AO) is a Vice-Chancellor’s Fellow and a Professorial Fellow in Economics at the University of Melbourne as well as a Distinguished Professor of the Australian National University. In 2009, Professor Garnaut was awarded the degree of Doctor of Letters, honoris causa, from the Australian National University and was made a Distinguished Fellow of the Economic Society of Australia.
Professor Garnaut is currently Chairman of the Papua New Guinea Sustainable Development Program Limited (Singapore), and its nominee Director on the Board of Ok Tedi Mining Limited (Papua New Guinea). He is a member of the board of several international research institutions. Professor Garnaut was foundation Chairman of Lihir Gold Limited, from 1995 to 2010. He was a member of the Board of Trustees of the International Food Policy Research Institute (Washington DC) from 2003 to 2010 and its Chairman from 2006.
Professor Garnaut is the author of numerous books, monographs and articles in scholarly journals on international economics, public finance and economic development, particularly in relation to East Asia and the Southwest Pacific. In addition to his distinguished academic career, Professor Garnaut has also had longstanding and successful roles as policy advisor, diplomat and businessman. He was the Senior Economic Adviser to Australian Prime Minister R.J.L. Hawke from 1983 to 1985 and subsequently served as the Australian Ambassador to China (1985 to 1988).
In September 2008, Professor Garnaut presented the Garnaut Climate Change Review to the Australian Prime Minister. This review, commissioned by the Australian government, examines the impact of climate change on the Australian economy and provides potential medium to long-term policies to ameliorate these. In November 2010 the Minister for Climate Change and Energy Efficiency commissioned Professor Garnaut to update his 2008 Garnaut Climate Change Review, and the final report was presented to the Australian Government in May 2011.
Lekker Fietsen = Fun in cycling
Koen van Waes
Traffic Planner, Hertogenbosch
“Cycling is not just about bicycle paths and parking facilities, it’s about creating a positive environment in which the bicycle is accepted as the best mode of transportation. It’s about encouraging, enjoying and tempting people!”
Koen van Waes has been a traffic planner for the city of ’s-Hertogenbosch for 5 years. Before that he worked as a traffic planner for the region of Eindhoven and a consultancy agency. Part of Koen’s studies involved making a bicycle and pedestrian plan for Flathead County in Montana, USA.
Koen is the Project Manager of the cycling improvement plan ”Fun in Cycling” (Lekker Fietsen) in ’s-Hertogenbosch. The plan involves considerable investment and the involvement of many organisations and people, causing the city of ’s-Hertogenbosch to take major steps to stimulate the use of bicycles in ’s-Hertogenbosch and encourage a positive cycling environment. One of the key elements of the approach of the city is their cooperation with other fields of policy such as sports, tourism, health, environment and spatial planning.
Following these efforts, the city of ’s-Hertogenbosch was elected as the Dutch Cycling City in 2011. This has seen an increase in visitors to the city from all around the world.
Koen has experience in a wide range of mobility fields, including:
• Strategic mobility and spatial studies
• Traffic research and modelling - Koen is the Project Manager of the regional traffic model
• Traffic management - Koen was the Project Manager of the local plan for improving traffic management in ’s-Hertogenbosch
• Parking policy - Koen is currently revising the parking policy within the inner city of ’s-Hertogenbosch.
Click here to view a video of cycling in ’s-Hertogenbosch.
How close is Melbourne to a world class cycling city? - Swanston Street and beyond
Prof. Rob Adams AM
Director City Design, City of Melbourne
Rob is currently the Director City Design at the City of Melbourne and the Vice Chair of the Urbanization Council of the World Economic Forum.
With over 40 years experience as an Architect and Urban Designer and 30 years at the City of Melbourne, Rob has made a significant contribution to the rejuvenation of Melbourne.
He and his team have been the recipients of over 120 Local, National and International Awards including on 4 occasions receiving the Australian Award for Urban Design.
Rob has also been awarded the Prime Minister’s Environmentalist of the Year Award in 2008 and the Order of Australia in 2007 for his contribution to Architecture and Urban Design.
Some key projects include CH2 Australia’s first 6 Star Green Commercial Office Building, Birrarung Marr, Swanston Street, City Square, Sandridge Bridge, East Melbourne Library and the City of Melbourne Street Furniture range to name but a few.
His current interests concern the health and sustainability of the Metro city and he has published extensively on the subject of ‘Transforming Cities for a Sustainable Future’.
Breakout Sessions - Thursday 18 October
Field work by bicycle helps reduction of academic research CO2 emissions
ICIST, Departament of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; CCDR-N, Porto, Portugal; Fundação Ciencia e Tecnologia. Orbita – Miralago S.A.
This paper deals with the urgency of rethinking the way practical research work is developed, in order to improve academic sustainability as a whole, and demonstrates, comparing available mobility solutions, the output for each solution regarding estimated environmental consequences, Green House Gas emissions and economic results. This study intends to raise awareness and narrow gaps between believers and sceptics over the planet earth environmental crises is narrowed.
The Phd project in which we integrated this study, aims to understand how tourism buildings in the Douro Region (North of Portugal) are performing regarding sustainability.
Wile planning the visits to a base universe of 150 hotels, it became clear that the research could become a very high CO2 emission activity. The best alternative to driving a car became clear when we analysed the options available for the intended trips. Therefore, we set for the use of the “Linha do Douro” train and electric assisted bicycle.
A practical and quantitative approach was applied with the use of GPS data-loggers and SIG-Software, enabling the clear output and demonstration of results.
We demonstrate that with some extra planning effort, it is practical, viable and efficient, to travel by train and small electric bicycle, instead of driving an average car with its consequent unmatched amounts of energy usage per kilometre. This findings are vital in today's world fragile economic, social and environmental context. The study holistic findings are also patent as contributions to demonstrate the pertinence and urgency of preparing local infrastructures, such as urban streets, national roads and train stations and carriages, to the increase of bicycle usage expectable as result of economic downturn and resource scarcity.
We found mainly publications related to greening academic institutions in a Top to Bottom process (Greening the Entire Campos, waste management, etc). But we fit our practical and quantitative study in a Bottom-Up approach, investigating “sources of sustainable competitive advantage must be done not only on organizations but also in organizations”.
As Sustainable Architecture Researchers, this study is a statement of coherency and urges that if academics act accordingly to thinking and findings so the message is more intelligible. Sustainable research actions must be clear and actively spread in the contemporary highly scrutinized environment. In the last years, the investigation related to sustainability increased, but self analysis exercise, that is, the self assessment of sustainability performance is often neglected.
Biography: António Feio was born n 1975 in Coimbra. In 1993 enters “FAUP” in Oporto, where in 1999 gets his degree in Architecture. In 1997/98 in order to attend the 5th year of studies in architecture, he lived in Lausanne, Switzerland, and studied at EPFL.
1998 starts an internship in the architecture firm “Paula Santos, arquitectos Lda”, where he works until 2004. Since 1999 develops several projects and architecture competitions with the work groups “SAACKE”, “4Q-Studio” and “3D emergency” - namely “[un]protected patrimony”” focusing on the industrial urban abandoned buildings. He also woks as consultant in Environmental Impact Assessment Studies with “Jacobs Gibb Ltd” in Lisbon (2002/03).He is consultant for sustainable construction for “FORTIFEIO ...architecture and derivatives” brand he started, along with Francisca Fortes, in 2003.
Since 2009 he developing doctoral research on Sustainable Architecture and Construction in “Instituto Superior Técnico”, currently with a Doctoral Grant by FCT.
Let your data be your guide
The Australian Cycling Participation Survey | What it tells us about the state of cycling
Australian Bicycle Council
The National Cycling Strategy 2011-2016 aims to double the number of Australians who ride a bicycle. To establish a baseline against which to measure performance towards this target, in 2011 the Australian Bicycle Council commissioned the Australian Cycling Participation Survey.
The survey, the first of its kind in Australia, provided rich information about who rides (and who doesn't) across the country.
The survey found that in a typical week around 18% of Australians ride a bicycle for transport and recreation with around 3.6 million people riding for recreation, leisure or sport and 1.2 million people making at least one transport journey.
This presentation will provide an overview of the survey tool and what the survey reveals about cycling in Australia and comparisons of cycling between states, children and adults, males and females, and regional and metropolitan areas.
It will also provide insight into the 2012 Local Government Cycling Participation Survey undertaken on behalf of 12 local councils, focusing on an attitudinal survey component developed with Port Phillip Council. We'll also include feedback from the participating councils about how they have used the data to communicate with the community and inform their planning.
Biography: In 2009 Elaena Gardner received a Churchill Fellowship to study effective cycling advocacy organisations. This research, and her background in corporate communication and community advocacy, saw her appointed to position of Executive Officer of the Australian Bicycle Council in 2011. The Australian Bicycle Council coordinates the implementation of the National Cycling Strategy 2011-16; provides a forum for the sharing of information between stakeholders involved in the implementation of the Strategy; and
maintains the Cycling Resource Centre (an online repository of information and resources to promote increased cycling in Australia).
Dynamic Connections - Open sourced crowd sourced cycle planning. Lessons learned from Berlin
In June and July 2012 Rachel and John will host and facilitate an open-source crowd-sourced bicycle map in Berlin which they have developed and built as part of the BMW Guggenheim Lab.
Users - cyclists and non-cyclists - will access a map of Berlin through the internet and via their mobile phone web browser to check-in to places they cycle or would like to cycle. They will be prompted to answer a series of cycling questions and to rate streets on their amenability for cycling e.g. gradients, traffic volumes and directness to destinations. The information is primarily crowd sourced and provides individuals with invaluable information on where it is good to cycle. The data also acts as a prioritisation tool for infrastructure delivery
This presentation will discuss:
- Lessons learned from the Access map John developed for New York City
- Why and how Rachel and John developed the bike map for Berlin
- How it was actually implemented on the ground ion the streets of Berlin
- What we collected
- What was really useful and could be used for transport planning
- Why do people want to be part of making their own city
- Lessons learned and next steps
This project was funded by the BMW Guggenheim Lab.
A combination of urban think tank, public forum, and community center, the BMW Guggenheim Lab is a first-of-its-kind initiative focused on identifying new ideas, designs and strategies to address the serious challenges urban centers face today and in engaging an international community in important discussions about city life. The six-year duration of the BMW Guggenheim Lab (starting in 2011) will include three different themes and three distinct mobile structures, each designed by a different architect and each traveling to three cities around the world (for a total of nine cities). Through its live programs and online presence, the BMW Guggenheim Lab will engage with individuals at a personal level, encouraging them to be agents of change. Ultimately, the BMW Guggenheim Lab strives to generate ideas and potential solutions to serious challenges facing urban centers today. Rachel Smith is a curator and host of the Berlin Lab.
Biography: Rachel is a Principal Transport Planner within AECOM and one of Australia's leading practitioners of active transport. Rachel is part of the BMW Guggenheim Lab nominated by Enrique Penalosa the former Mayor of Bogota. Rachel is on the Queensland Government Art+Place curatorial panel, Founder of ‘Cycling Super Highways', Co-Creator of Lazy Sunday Cycle a crowd-sourced cycling initiative and a bicycle blogger in the UK, Australia and USA. Rachel was short listed as a 2012 TED Global Fellow (TED Talks), winner of the 2008 AITPM Janet Brash Memorial Scholarship and winner of the 2003 CIHT BP International Road Safety Award. TED talks said "Rachel's dedication to the environment is inspiring and her passion for cycling is unmatched”
Pedal Power! City of Port Phillip Bike Plan 2011-2020: Making the journey from Supporting Cycling to Developing a Strong Bike Riding Agenda
Port Phillip City Council
Port Phillip City Council has long held a position of encouraging the uptake of sustainable travel modes, with the city's inner Melbourne location and proximity to the Melbourne CBD making it ideal for using these modes instead of a motor vehicle.
2010 marked the start of the review and updating of Council's earlier walk and bike plans, and at the same time develop an overarching ‘Sustainable Transport Strategy' to encapsulate Council's long-term vision, mode shift targets and strategic justification for prioritising sustainable travel modes over car use.
In terms of mode shift the Bike Plan sets out to increase the distance the community travel by bike riding to deliver on Council's greenhouse emission reduction target of 50% reduction by 2020. This target translates to increasing the number of trips under 5 kilometres done by either walking or bike riding by 50% and increasing the number of trips made by walking and bike riding for middle distance trips (5-15km) by 15%. Realistically, this means more local trips being made by walking and bike riding, with bike riding becoming a more competitive and popular travel choice as the distance increases, coupled with public transport.
To realise these targets it was recognised early in the development of the Bike Plan 2011-2020, there needed to be a move away from looking at broad strategic directions like in the previous plan, towards articulating concrete actions, informed by data. This approach has yielded a pipe-line of actions and projects for Council to implement to become pedal powered. These cover both infrastructure and programs based strategies and actions to produce sustained changes in the community's travel habits.
In the first Council budget since the adoption of the strategy and Walk and Bike plans, $2.1Million was committed to the implementation of the plans with $1 million dedicated to realising Port Phillip's bike network and related infrastructure, with the intention that ongoing funding to realise port Phillip's bike network is provided over the next 10 years.
Refer to attached mind map for aspects of the plan intended to be covered within the presentation.
Biography: John Bartels is the Coordinator of Sustainable Transport at the City of Port Phillip, a position he has held for two years. Here he leads a small but dedicated team focussed on increasing the uptake of sustainable travel modes by both the community and council staff. Prior to moving to Melbourne he worked for Brisbane City Council in its Strategic Transport Planning team leading the development of a City Centre Transport Strategy after five years working in London in the transport field. Over this time he contracted to a number of borough council's and the Clear Zone Partnership in inner north-east London, with his most recent role in this time being the project manager for Camden Council on the London Bicycle Hire Scheme. He resides in inner east of Melbourne and enjoys the freedom of living car free but with a myki card and multiple bicycles.
Start at the Destination!
Fashion, Fun and Facilities: How Activity Centre Traders can Benefit from the Cycling Trend
Mark Donnellan and Kate Butler
City of Yarra
Before the boom in car ownership in the middle of last century, the economic health of high street activity centres were strongly dependent on public transport, particularly trams and railways. The dominance of the private car now has transformed our activity centres to public parking lots with a central aisle of space to compete for traffic including bicycles, cars and public transport. Crossing the road is unpleasant and difficult and dining on a sidewalk shrouded with car fumes provides less than an attractive past time. The consequential traffic snarls, costs of fuel and parking costs is making driving an increasingly less desirable option.
These are compromises that we have come to take for granted, and they are not going to change quickly. However, in a time when traders are competing not only with other local activity centres, but also with the growing market of online shopping, there is a need to find new and savvy ways to appeal to the community.
Capitalising on ‘cool' is a well-established competitive strategy for retail and food and beverage industries. In fact the trendiness of cycling is already working its way into some activity centres, with bicycles popping up in the display windows of shops and replacing A-frames as billboards the streets.
Riding a bike can give one similar independence for shorter trips, but is not without the traffic and parking hassles. The provision of cycling-friendly infrastructure in activity centres is inexpensive and ensures that people can easily access cafes and shops on their bicycles without the need to combat traffic and parking.
Resurgence in bike riding, particularly in inner suburban Melbourne, is being used to attract better economic outcomes for those high street activity centres that cater to bike riders. This paper presents examples of how high street activity centres have benefited from promotion of the trendy cycling culture and the provision of cycling infrastructure. Melbourne and international examples of high street food and shopping precincts are presented to stimulate the discussion. We will outline a collection of shopping precincts, and their local governments, that have recognised that the provision of infrastructure, such as parking, designated lanes and traffic signalling, is significantly less expensive for bicycles than cars.
How can cycle friendly initiatives simultaneously benefit both the traders and the community; and what does it take for other activity centres to get a slice of the action?
Biography: Joint presentation: Mark Donnellan and Kate Butler
Mark Donnellan manages capital works projects in the City of Yarra's Recreation and Open Space unit. He is studying for a Masters in Social Science in Planning and Environment at RMIT University, and lectures there part-time in Parks and Public Land Management. He lives in a car-free household with his partner and their three teenage daughters and they are all committed to normalising bicycle riding, especially for women and girls.
Kate has recently joined Bicycle Network Victoria as as a recreation facility campaigner. Kate is a transport engineer with 12 years experience in the private sector contributing to development of cycling infrastructure through strategic planning and design for transport and recreation projects.
Influencing habit change through a significant event
Ride2Work uses Community-Based Social Marketing techniques (social norms, social diffusion) and an event to prompt people to act. Currently in its 19th year it has been successful in encouraging tens of thousands of people to start the ride to work habit. The 2011 Ride2Work Day had over 45,000 registrations, of which 7,000 rated themselves as riding to work for the first time on the day, or in the leadup to the event.
Opt-in follow-up surveys conducted 5 months later showed that of the people not riding to work one year prior, 63% were riding to work once per week or more.
Ride2Work engages existing commuters to influence those in contemplation to give it a try. People who register can nominate to be a Workplace Coordinator. By providing social norm to follow, as well as social diffusion through someone they know and trust, people are willing to give it a try. After the event, a combination of endurable public declarations, support, and the chance of incentives increases their likelihood of forming the habit.
Biography: Cory Boardman - M Bus (MgtPract), B Ed & Train, Dip Ed (T&FE).
Following a background in adult education, and years of volunteering for the program, Cory combines the two in his role in the Ride2Work program.
Leveraging town planners: growing active travel as part of the conditions of consent
Local councils and precinct authorities in the Greater Sydney Area have been requiring Green Travel Plans for new (and re)development projects. As the travel plan is required as part of the Conditions of Consent, the developer and new tenant must work together to prepare a travel plan.
GTA Consultants have prepared Green Travel Plans prior to occupation.
A Green Travel Plan is a mechanism for councils or precincts to allow developers and businesses to reduce costly structured car parking requirements – using transport infrastructure and programs to minimise the carparking demand and traffic associated with new (or re)development.
Indirect benefits to business typically include a healthier, more productive workforce and reduced sick leave. Societal benefits include decongestion, greater travel flexibility, cleaner air and less noise.
Using catchment mapping, we demonstrate existing nearby walking, cycling and public transport options a available for use and identify facility requirements to integrate new land uses with these transport options. Through a staff travel questionnaire, we collect information on existing travel behaviour and staff interest in typical work place travel programs – gauging opportunities for increasing use of the existing transport network, carpooling, cycling and walking to work. We use this baseline dataset to develop a suite of effective, workplace-specific strategies and recommend the most likely programs to reduce the impacts of drive-alone travel behaviour.
Working to a short timeframe, we prepare a suite of practical, sustainable transport infrastructure and programs to implement as part of the office relocation. Facilities for people who walk and cycle are typically cheaper than providing shuttles or bus services – an attractive proposition for businesses already incurring the expense of relocation.
This paper reviews several case studies of implemented initiatives, including fleet bicycles for workplace errands, end-of-trip facilities for cyclists (as well as runners, walkers and lunch time sport participants) as part of Green Travel Plans and change management strategy associated with businesses or residents relocating to new commercial premises.
Biography: Rebecca Lehman is an Associate Transport Planner with GTA Consultants with experience integrating land use and transport. She puts her energy and enthusiasm to work in active and sustainable transport, applying standard transport planning tools to walking, cycling and public transport projects. She is passionate about good planning and design for healthy, happy and connected neighbourhoods, activity centres and public transport interchanges. She's convinced that each transport mode has an important contribution to our cities – especially active travel modes like walking and cycling. In 2012, Rebecca directed the concept design for more than 30 km of bicycle facilities and shared paths.
Her specialties include:
- Walking and cycling infrastructure planning, design, promotion and integration
- Public transport planning, station precinct and land use integration
- Transport integration and Transit Oriented Development
- Bicycle parking and end-of-trip facilities
- Travel demand management, travel planning and supportive transport policy
- Monitoring strategies
Public Bikes in the Asia-Pacific region: What we can learn and apply ourselves
Public Bike Share and cycling in Australia: lessons from Melbourne and Brisbane
Institute for Sensible Transport
Public bicycle share schemes have become one of the fastest growing forms of transport in urban areas, with over 300 now in operation and many more in the planning stages. These schemes have also emerged as an important tool for planners seeking to understand what factors are important in peoples' decision to ride, whether on public or private bicycles. The schemes potentially provide flexible transport options for short trips in central urban areas. In 2007, Paris launched Europe's largest scheme, with over 20,000 bicycles. Hangzhou, China currently has the world's largest public bicycle share scheme, with over 60,000 bikes. In 2010 Melbourne and Brisbane established Australia's first public bicycle share schemes. Recent research has explored barriers and facilitators to the use of such schemes and their impact on riders and non-riders. Focus groups conducted in Brisbane found accessibility/spontaneity, safety and weather/topography were key themes influencing the use of public bicycles. Data analysis of the Melbourne scheme highlights the potential for integration of public bikes with existing modes of public transport, especially for commuters. These findings have implications for municipalities and other organisations seeking to increase participation in bicycle riding.
Biography: Elliot is one of Australia's leading experts on sustainable transport and in 2008 advised the Prime Minister's Office on cycling and fuel price issues. He has worked both internationally and around Australia on a variety of transport issues - with a special interest in energy, infrastructure planning and active transport (walking and cycling).
He has written numerous articles for The Age, the Herald Sun, British Medical Journal as well as a host of industry journals on transport, energy and sustainability
Elliot is currently the Director of the Institute for Sensible Transport. This role requires him to develop sustainable transport, land use and energy solutions for government and the private sector. Elliot is also undertaking a PhD on public bicycle systems at the Centre for Accident Research and Road Safety - Queensland. His work was presented at the Transportation Research Board in Washington DC in January 2012.
NUBIJA - The Bike Sharing Scheme of Changwon, Korea - Its successes and its future
Changwon City Government
The city of Changwon has introduced the NUBIJA Bicycle Sharing Scheme in order to promote cycling in the city. Since its implementaiton in 2009, the system has expanded from 430 bicycles to 4,500 bicycles as of December 2011. The city aims to operate 6,000 bicycles in the NUBIJA system through 280 bicycle terminals spread across the city. Through this presentation and through a poster, the city would like to share the success story of the bicycle sharing scheme and the benefits brought in by the scheme. For example, since implementation the scheme has saved 3.76 million USD to the city government and has lowered the city's CO2 emission by 5,489 tonnes/year. Changwon city will also focus on the EcoMobility Alliance, for which the city serves as chair, and the efforts being made to bring together such success stories from various cities around the world and create a group learning and knowledge sharing platform.
Biography: Mr. Kang represents the Bicycle Policy Division at the Changwon City Hall. He and his team are responsible to maintain the NUBIJA bicycle sharing scheme and make policy such that the scheme is successfully implemented.
Bicycle Usage and Bicycle Culture: A Sociological Study of Tehran, Iran
Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi
Department of Social Science, Al-Zahra University, Tehran
The paper explores how the bicycle usage is necessary for the expanding and exploding Tehran City; where the environment is deteriorating and pollution is increasing. Tehran City with a population of about 8 million aims to support and encourage high bicycle usage in order to protect the environment and lower the city pollution. The municipality is trying to create a bicycle culture. For that purpose, some flat districts of Tehran City have been chosen to start the project; to be followed by further municipal districts in later stages. Although a cycling subculture is there, it is highly necessary to popularise bicycle usage and culture. For that, bicycle stations have been created with subsidised and low rate of bicycle renting in some parts of the city. For example, in district 5 such traffic facilitating stations have been organized, and in district 8, some applicants have been provided with low-cost bikes as and encouragement. Though many countries like Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany, China, India, Japan etc. have already built up their bicycle cultures, Iran too, is trying to eradicate bicycle taboo and instead, make bicycle culture widespread. But, as the infrastructures are not yet available, it still has a long way to go to reach the objective. The city still needs to work on bicycle culture, build a well-developed infrastructure favouring bicycle, including segregated bike lanes and extensive facilities catering to a large amount of bicycles in the large metropolitan landscape, such as bike racks at subway/metro stations. Narrow streets, up-and- down roads and large numbers of cars in Tehran City have deterred the bicycle culture to emerge. They are observed as big challenges. Sociologically speaking, a bicycling lifestyle must be built among the citizens. Girls and women comprising large numbers of car drives are not appreciated to ride bicycles; and sociologically and culturally speaking that is a big challenge. To collect data on the issue, a survey method has been used, followed by random sampling in different neighbourhoods of Tehran City. Findings show that: large numbers of citizens favour bicycle usage only if the required infrastructure is there; about 70% of female samples longed for riding bikes; about 80% of the males sampled were interested in bicycle usage. Yet, what the government has to do, is to eliminate the prejudice against bicycle riding among certain segments of the population, generally stemming from the issue of status.
Biography: Dr. Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi is a Professor of Sociology in the Department of Social Science at Al-Zahra University in Tehran.
His works in social sciences/sociology, having been widely published. These include 20 books and over 100 published articles.
Three Degrees of Separation
Can Residents and Vibraline for Bicycle Lanes Co-exist?
In 2010, the Glen Eira Bicycle Strategy was adopted. The Strategy notes that separating bicycles and moving traffic is likely to be effective in reducing the incidence of mid-block rear end and side swipe crashes involving cyclists. Many such crashes are due to unintentional drifting of car drivers to the left which usually results in significant injury to the cyclist.
The installation of ‘Vibraline' (a white rippled line) along the edge of bicycle lanes was recommended to address this issue in Glen Eira. Vibraline is designed to set up a vibration inside the vehicle that alerts drivers to the fact that they are drifting from the designated travel lane.
Although commonplace on high speed rural freeways, the implications of using Vibraline in low speed urban environments is less well understood however studies are now starting to conclude that this treatment can provide benefits for cyclists.
A key issue that still needs to be understood better is the noise impacts of Vibraline in a residential context (where many bicycle lanes exist).
A limited trial of Vibraline is therefore being undertaken in Caulfield North. O'Brien Traffic is working with acoustic consultants Watson Moss Growcott (WMG) to assess the noise implications which includes ‘before' and ‘after' noise studies along the route and resident interviews at various stages of the trial.
This paper will report on the noise measurements and community views associated with Vibraline.
Biography: Matt is an Associate with O'Brien Traffic – a Melbourne based consultancy providing traffic engineering, road safety and transport planning services.
Matt's interests include travel demand management, bicycle and walking design, local area traffic management schemes and road safety audits. Matt is also heavily involved in community consultation and transport planning through O'Brien Traffic's contract to provide Traffic Engineering and Transport Planning Services to Glen Eira City Council.
Assessment of the Effectiveness of Narrow Bicycle Lane Separators
Road controlling authorities desire to better provide for existing cyclists, and encourage more people who are interested in cycling but who are discouraged from participation due to safety concerns. There is widespread acknowledgement (supported by a substantial body of circumstantial evidence and research) that providing increased physical separation between motor vehicle and bicycle space will help address these concerns and lead to an increase in cycling.
Previous trials and evaluation of a 350 mm wide separator line has been undertaken for VicRoads. This new research covers on-road trials of a 100 mm wide physical bicycle lane separator in Christchurch. ViaStrada was commissioned by VicRoads to design the empirical study, evaluate the results, and report on the findings.
Separator devices were placed in two locations where motorists were commonly encroaching into exclusive bicycle lanes. To guide road controlling authorities on the use of physical bicycle lane separator devices, there is a need to quantify their safety and effectiveness through empirical research, in this case with before and after studies of driver behaviour.
Assuming that the results will indicate effectiveness, it is anticipated that the research conclusions will, in a subsequent stage of work, be combined with the development of best practice guidance on the most appropriate treatment locations and layouts (e.g. continuous or intermittent separators, with or without vertical bollards).
Biography: Axel holds an ME (Civil) from Canterbury University and has been active as a traffic engineer and transport planner in New Zealand since 1998. He specialises in sustainable transportation, urban traffic engineering, traffic signals, road safety and intersection modelling. He is a director of ViaStrada Limited, a consultancy based in Christchurch.
‘Make sure you're home for tea!': Supportive environments for active and independent kids
Fear is putting the breaks on children's independence
Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth)
The benefits of being physically active are irrefutable, however over the past 50 years there has been a dramatic shift from a lifestyle that was by definition, physically active to one that is predominantly sedentary.
Today we live in a society which is paralyzed by fear of the unknown and where communities are developed with a focus on profit at the expense to the health of its residents. Our children's development is being stifled by the growth of risk aversion. This is restricting children's freedom, corrodes their relationships with their peers and constraints their exploration of their neighbourhood and virtual worlds.
Drawing on the latest Australian and International research, this presentation will help to identify; how society shapes our beliefs and attitudes, the key factors that contribute to children and young people riding less to school and within their neighbourhood and recognize what success looks like in the short and longer term.
Biography: Cameron is the Manager, Physical Activity at VicHealth and is responsible for leading a range of health promotion activities to prevent chronic disease and address the social and economic factors which contribute to physical inactivity.
Cameron has a Bachelor of Arts in Recreation Management and a Masters of Business Administration. Cameron is the co-chair of the Victorian Pedestrian Advisory Council and is a member of a number of state level advisory boards including; health, sport and active recreation, education and transport, amongst others.
Prior to commencing with VicHealth, Cameron was the Manager, Rural Community Facilities at Sport and Recreation Victoria where he led a range of multi-million dollar community facility planning and development initiatives which aim to increase accessible participation in sport and active recreation.
Cameron is passionate about increasing physical activity throughout the community and tackling health inequalities and social disadvantage through sport and active recreation.
Creating cycle-friendly cities? It's child's play
The goals of making cities more cycle-friendly and more child-friendly are remarkably similar. In car-dominated cities, the needs of both cyclists and children have been subordinated to the demands of motorists. To achieve child-friendly and cycle-friendly cities requires a fundamental cultural shift in city life and planning. This can be stimulated through a focus on children and play. In places where children's playful exploration is a priority, cyclists and pedestrians of all ages benefit. Despite a growing international focus on children's rights, children's right to play has been eroded in many cities in recent decades. Children play less outdoors, and they have less contact with nature as their freedom to independently explore their neighbourhoods has declined markedly in many nations. Our attempts to increase children's safety have focused on individualistic strategies such as keeping children inside cars, which collectively increase risks for everyone. By taking a more holistic and society-wide perspective, aimed at creating child-friendly cities, children's freedom can be regained, and our cities will be happier, healthier and more livable for all citizens.
Biography: Dr Paul Tranter is an Associate Professor in geography in the School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences at UNSW Canberra (the Australian Defence Force Academy), where his research and teaching interests are in transport geography and global change. Paul has made a pioneering contribution to research in child-friendly environments, active transport, and healthy and sustainable cities. He has forged new areas of research by combining hitherto unlinked research topics (e.g. children's rights and peak oil), or by applying innovative concepts to urban transport (e.g. “effective speed”, a concept that considers the total time costs associated with any mode of transport). An important theme in his research is how child-friendly environments can make cities more resilient in the face of challenges such as energy stress. This issue is examined in a recent book Paul co-authored with Claire Freeman – "Children and Their Urban Environment: Changing Worlds".
Learnings from Australian CBDs
Central city growth in Melbourne and the role of cycling
City of Melbourne
The City of Melbourne is experiencing strong growth in jobs and residents. The weekday population is expected to grow from 800,000 today to 1.2 million in 2030. The area that we think of as the central city is expanding to the north, to Docklands and Southbank. This is driving demand for more access and mobility which will need to be met by growth in non-car transport modes including cycling. Growth is also putting more pressure on existing resources including the amount of space available for movement in the city. This presentation will detail the role that cycling is likely to play in the City of Melbourne as we plan ahead to 2030 including the Hoddle Grid and new central city growth areas. The presentation will cover current mode shares, growth rates, goals, targets and comparisons with other modes. It will include presentation of cycling data that informed the City of Melbourne's 2012 Transport Strategy which has a key direction to “make Melbourne a Cycling City.”
Biography: Richard Smithers has been Team Leader of Transport Planning in the Strategic Planning branch at the City of Melbourne since May 2009. He led the team which wrote the new 2012 Transport Strategy for the City of Melbourne. Before that he was Transport Coordinator at the City of Yarra for four years and managed the on-road bicycle infrastructure program. He was previously Campaigns Coordinator at Bicycle Victoria and a member of the board of the Bicycle Coalition of Greater Philadelphia. He is a qualified League of American Bicyclists Effective Cycling Instructor, owner of several tandems and, with colleagues Malcolm Daff, David Laidlaw and others, is a founding member of the Melbourne Narrow Lanes Society.
Mainstreaming cycling in the City of Adelaide: learnings and strategies to date.
Adelaide City Council
Cycling is integral to Adelaide's ambition to be a world-class city. Lord Mayor Stephen Yarwood believes Adelaide can be the best cycling city in the Southern Hemisphere, with its compact city centre, Mediterranean climate and wide, flat roads.
Cycling is a key component of Adelaide City Council's integrated approach to transport planning. The number of people cycling into and within the city has increased 100 per cent in the last 10 years. As one of the most car centric cities in Australia, however, Adelaide faces multiple challenges in its efforts to mainstream cycling.
Stephen's presentation will begin by looking at how Council, to date, has increased cycling in the city. He will reflect on projects that met significant resistance, such as the introduction of a Copenhagen-style bike lane, which was later removed. Stephen will also share multiple success stories, such as Council's role in the development of the Tour Down Under, the creation of kilometres of bike lanes, and the introduction of free city bikes.
Council's next challenge is its biggest yet – implementing a new Integrated Movement Strategy. This strategy is about choice, and focuses on finding more efficient and sustainable mobility solutions for the city. Stephen will discuss the challenges Council faced during the document's development and consultation period, which included how to foster community understanding around concepts such as reducing on-street parking, reducing the speed limit, and raising parking costs. He will also outline next steps for the strategy, including key cycling projects to be undertaken in the next year.
Biography: Stephen is the City of Adelaide's youngest-ever Lord Mayor. A town planner with 20 years' experience in state and local government, Stephen has dedicated his professional life to his passion for developing vibrant, sustainable cities.
Stephen is working to make Adelaide a modern, vibrant and sustainable place to do business, live and enjoy life. He believes an economy based on innovation, education, arts and culture will make Adelaide prosperous.
He is also encouraging strong working relationships between all levels of government, as well as business and the general community. As Lord Mayor, he is also patron to 20 organisations.
Stephen has an MBA, as well as post-graduate qualifications in Regional and Urban Planning and Environmental Studies. He lives in the south-west corner of the city with his family
The Bike Journey in Hobart: A road less travelled
City of Hobart
Hobart has a modern sustainable transport strategy with multiple transport modes. It lacks an implementation strategy to gain cross sectional support .
What has been evident from the community consultation on the Sandy Bay cycle way proposal is the need to win over support of the 80% plus of the community who do not fit into the 10 % for or 10% against this or any other significant project .
The process of our consultation undertaken has been a little stop /start, largely reflecting the lack of trust in the process (quite possibly by both pro bike facilities and those against “imposed solutions").
The journey has been remarkable for several reasons.
- nil advocating of the merits of removing cars from our roadways;
- a failure to arrive at a meeting of the minds between the stakeholders ;
- a lack of trust in either the process or the outcome .
The new path is now firmly committed to quelling community concern .
Its new direction will press home the net social and economic/ environmetal benefits and ideally a champion will come forward in the form of a good negotiator and mediator .
It has begun with a new engagement phase, premised on not necessarily the outright scrapping of the original design , but holding the initial plans up to the lamp light of scrutiny with potential for alternative design .
A great deal of time has been spent in assuring skeptical people that the new consultation is indeed honest, open and transparent – intended to establish which was missing before – trust between parties.
Interestingly, a positive by-product of the process has emerged in a fledging beginning of a new community group interested in the general beautification and custodianship of the area affected, much along the lines of the very successful New York City/public parks and gardens coalition involving a unique combination of public private partnerships and the work of volunteer groups .
What will be the outcome is of course unknown. What is different now is that the process is built around collaboration with a mutual outcome sought.
At day's end once again the experience has shown that it is not about the outcome, nor the dollars you might throw at a flawed process but choosing at least in Hobart's case " a road less travelled " and sticking solidly to it .
Biography: As the Lord Mayor of Hobart, Alderman Damon Thomas has a passion for the potential of Hobart and long term interest in the City's future.
Alderman Thomas has an outstanding background in local and State Government, business and the Tasmanian community. He is a qualified lawyer with an extensive professional background that has encompassed significant public and private sector senior executive, director and statutory roles.
His achievements include appointments as Tasmanian Crown Solicitor, State Ombudsman, and Health Complaints Commissioner and CEO of the Tasmanian Chamber of Commerce and Industry. He is currently head of the Salvation Army Red Shield Appeal and the Work Cover Tasmania Board, as well as being the Korean Consul. He has previously been on the Board of the Heart Foundation and the Cancer Council and has worked closely with the Australian Retailers Association, staying in touch with the needs of retailers at national and local levels.
Alderman Thomas is committed to a vision for the future that will include stronger Council partnerships with business, rate payers and the community.
How to ensure new suburbs support riding
Providing for Bicycles on Arterial Roads in Growth Areas
To accommodate Melbourne's increasing population, its urban area is being expanded to the west, northwest, north, and south east. A network of divided arterial roads will be extended into these areas to provide key transport corridors for general traffic, freight vehicles and public transport. At times, the arterial roads will have high vehicle volumes and have speeds up to 80 km/h. They will be direct, will not have driveway access, but will have some side roads. Due to their directness, the arterial roads will have the potential to become a key part of the bicycle network. But what is the best way to provide for bicycles within a new arterial road corridor?
A number of years ago, new arterial roads would have wide kerbside lanes to provide space for bicycles. Then on-road bicycle lanes became more appropriate, and more recently off-road shared paths have been preferred. Due to space constraints in some existing road reserves, shared paths have been constructed only one side of the road. With the new arterial roads being in green field sites, there is an opportunity to design and construct the most appropriate bicycle facilities using our current knowledge and experience in providing for bicycles.
This presentation will share the current thinking behind providing for bicycles in arterial road reserves. A range of contexts will be used including providing for the broadest range of riders, considering bicycle levels of service, and having a high regard for road safety.
Biography: Alistair Cumming is the Manager of Integrated Transport Engineering at VicRoads. He leads a small team of people who are changing VicRoads policies, processes, and practices, so that VicRoads delivers integrated transport outcomes - as a matter of course. Alistair brings a broad perspective to the role with qualifications and experience in Traffic Engineering, Urban Planning, and Mechanical Engineering.
The Planning Checklist for Cycling in New Suburbs
Bicycle Network Victoria
Much of the growth in Australian major cities is occurring in outer fringe areas. But very few people ride their bikes for transport in these areas (less than 1%) despite most trips being less than 5km - similar to inner suburbs.
New suburbs need to be planned and built so active travel, including cycling, is incorporated into anticipated travel patterns. These travel patterns will differ from existing inner suburbs and this means that cycling provision will differ from what might be successful in inner areas.
In outer suburbs there is more recreational riding and trips by children and family groups to local destinations such as including schools, shops, community and sporting facilities. These types of trips and riders require full separation from busy traffic. The daily trip to and from school is critical as it can set up travel for the day.
Trips to work and tertiary education tend to be much longer in outer suburbs - up to 30km average - and require links to public transport and secure bike storage. There will tend to be less adult commuter cycling within outer suburbs so on-road bike lanes will have less of a role.
The Planning Checklist for Cycling aims to ensure the minimum infrastructure requirements for cycling have been met in new suburbs. It does this through a sequential series of checks that are both assessable and achievable. Assessments of connectivity, permeability and quality/appropriateness are given at three stages of planning - New Communities (regional); New Neighbourhoods (subdivision) and New Streets (permit requirements). The Checklist brings together current planning practice, accepted engineering guidelines and the latest research into a single assessment tool. Input from, and testing by planners and developers has allowed refinement of the Checklist so it is relevant to, and can be incorporated into, current planning practice.
The presentation will cover the background and development of the Planning Checklist and gives examples of how the Checklist has been applied to existing and planned development proposals.
Biography: Bart has worked in bicycle planning and facility design for eight years. He currently manages the VicHealth funded project - Healthy New Suburbs in Urban Growth Zones and also provides advice on design of bicycle facilities through the Good Design Guide webpages.
Bart started work as an engineering geologist in Qld (dams & weirs). Sick of rocks he did a Masters of Environmental Science at Wollongong University. After working in Canberra on Landcare (& other things) he had a stint in Washington D.C. helping manage a bike shop (City Bikes). He also has postgraduate qualifications in Urban Design from Melbourne University.
Mitigating Circumstances - How to prevent unwanted behaviour
Right Here: Right Now. Rider engagement and behaviour change
If there is one thing that really annoys bike riders it is other bike riders. Other bike riders ‘doing the wrong thing.'
And if we get annoyed by it you can be sure that others in the community have a similar reaction: drivers, shock-jocks, police and even those in councils and governments trying to get the dollars and the priorities lined up to build the infrastructure we need.
Good rider behaviour—honouring the laws of the road and respecting the riders' code—not only lowers risks on the road, but critically, fosters community goodwill towards the public investment we need to attract more people on to bikes.
A few years back it seemed to Bicycle Network Victoria that the traditional methods used to communicate to riders—preaching one day, hectoring the next—was just not cutting through.
Riders, we thought, would be prepared to listen, to consider their faults, and change their behaviour, if we could reach them and engage with them directly, face-to-face, in the street, whilst riding their bike.
The engagement model of behaviour intervention was launched. Several years on, with a number of programs now undertaken, the results are fascinating.
This presentation examines the development of the model, assesses the ingredients for success and outlines option for the future.
Biography: Garry Brennan looks after Public Affairs for Bicycle Network. He guides the organisation and its members through the challenge of shaping media, community and institutional attitudes towards bike riding, so that government policy is aligned to riders needs thus ensuring the benefits of the bike revolution are fully realised for all Australians.
Desegregating urban spaces through behavioural design: understanding and enabling shared space
Cities are the great hope of a sustainable, resilient and prosperous future. The rapid urbanisation of the world's population is changing the form, function and culture of many cities around the worlds. These changes vary from the extreme in developing countries like China and India to more modest change in cities like New York, Melbourne and Sydney.
To accommodate the current rate of urbanisation we will need to build as much infrastructure in the next 50 years that we did in the last 300. It is clear that our cities cannot continue to be developed around the private car. This inefficient use of valuable urban space cannot be sustained.
The future urban form will be higher, denser, greener, and smarter, and shared. Public space will be dominated, not by private motor vehicles, but rather by people. Mobility will be enabled not by personal transport, but rather by systems of ‘sharing', such as shared space for pedestrians and cyclists. Although the scale of change will vary from city to city, some cities will face greater culture change than others, particularly those with a strong ethos of self-interest, self-entitlement and personal/private space.
This talk will explore the cultural issues that underpin the success and failure of shared public spaces in the context of Australian cities, contrasted against global experience. The current transformation of Swanston Street will provide a case study to explore the transition of a public space from a vehicle dominated corridor to a people-oriented place at the heart of the City of Melbourne. The talk will draw on the experience of the implementation of a behavioural adaptation program, delivered during the opening of the first section of the new streetscape, to support street users adapt to a relatively new and unfamiliar space.
The concept of behavioural design will be introduced as a method for closing the gap between design intent and human behaviour. This approach argues that by designing with the grain of human nature, shared space can be more intuitive in its use, and more aligned with the cultural factors that influence its success or failure.
Ultimately this talk advocates an approach to the design of the built environment that integrates engineering and psychology with an emphasis on contextual inquiry, to deliver public space where cycling is enabled and culturally supported.
Biography: Jonathan leads GHD's Behavioural Design services. He has over 12 years international experience in the application of behaviourology in the design of the built environment, including buildings, public spaces and transportation. His work questions how the built environment influences human behaviour, perceptions and use of buildings and public spaces. Jonathan works with urban policy makers, managers and problem solvers to embed behaviour change in the design of the built environment and to build capacity for change among its users. He has designed, delivered and evaluated projects tackling a range of behavioural issues including sustainability, health and safety, coexistence and spatial orientation.
Dooring: An open and shut case
Road Safe Action Group Inner Melbourne
Doorings have long been a dreaded hazard for the urban bike rider. They have been a feature of the inner Melbourne riding environment since the long boom in bike riding began its steady climb.
Then suddenly the numbers spiked. In 2009 and 2010 the incidence virtually doubled the long term trend. Bicycle Network Victoria, the inner Melbourne municipalities, the police and emergency health staff all registered alarm at trend.
Serious injuries were a common outcome, and in October 2010 a young cyclist, James Cross, was killed in a dooring incident when riding to university. His death prompted an outcry.
The Coroner's Inquest into the death prompted a surge in media and community interest into the causes and potential solutions.
Road Safe Action Group Inner Melbourne commissioned CDM Research to investigate the issue so that policy responses could be guided by the clear illumination of solid information and clear analysis.
Remarkably the study found that the problem is highly concentrated on just a few streets and therefore should be fixable.
Our presentation outlines the findings of “Bicycle Rider Collisions with Car Doors” and describes Operation Door Knock, the campaign which has been developed to highlight the need for changed road user behaviours.
Biography: Janet Bolitho is the President of the Road Safety Action Group Inner Melbourne, and former mayor of the City of Port Phillip. She is a dedicated but lazy bike rider who prefers to ride rather than walk in Inner Melbourne. RSAGIM is committed to making Inner Melbourne safer for pedestrians, cyclists and public transport users. The group was funded by the Victorian Community Road Safety Partnership to undertake the research which is the subject of this presentation.
Bike Corrals, OK? Effective decision-making for on-street bike parking: Interactive Workshop
An interactive session
Harry Barber and Wayne Wescott
How to upgrade your intersections
Traffic Signals on Sydney's Separated Cycleways
Bitzios Consulting was engaged by the then NSW RTA (now RMS) to conduct a study of the operational issues on separated cycleways in and near the Sydney Central Business District. The operational study explored bicycle detection and traffic signal operations, and was conducted simultaneously with a separate behavioural study by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology Sydney (UTS).
Three intersections, each with different traffic and road conditions, were analysed during three weekday periods. The designed (or intended) operation was compared with the actual operation, and cyclists' behaviour in response to the special bicycle signals was recorded.
While the study found taht the bicycle signals and detectors were operating as designed, most cyclists did not appear to know where the detection zone was. Detection of bicycles was reliable so long as the cyclist stopped and remained behind the cycleway stop line until the bicycle signal turned green. In cases where bicycle green times appeared too short, or where delays to cyclists appeared unduly long, most cyclists rode against the red bicycle signal but at the same time as the parallel greem signal for motor vehicles.
The study produced 12 recommendations for operational and behavioural improvements on cycleways for the Sydney CBD and surrounding areas.
Biography: Alan Finlay has over 35 years of professional engineering experience, gained through careers with RTA and its predecessor organisations, NRMA, and consulting. His specialist skills include traffic analysis, traffic signal design and operation, integrated transport planning and policy, Intelligent Transport Systems, road sfaety and driver training. He is highly experienced in the Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic System (SCATS) and has an excellent knowledge of the greater Sydney and NSW road networks. Alan has widespread experience in public policy development and promotion, issues management, and management of corporate affairs, together with experience in consulting, commercial product development and management. Alan is a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Traffic Planning and Management (AITPM) and Chartered Member of the Institute of Logistics and Transport.
Learnings from Regional Victoria - Bike developments in Bendigo
City of Greater Bendigo
The City of Greater Bendigo has undertaken a range of projects to improve the safety and connectivity of the bike network. This paper outlines the range of projects completed and currently underway.
Bendigo has long benefitted from a shared path that forms the spine of the off road network. The Bendigo Creek Trail is an off-road path that runs parallel to the Bendigo Creek and runs from two of the major recreation centers through the northern and southern suburbs linking with the Bendigo CBD and services a number schools along the route.
This shared path crosses a number of local and arterial roads. The City though funding from the Department of Transport Local Area Access Program has undertaken changes to five of the key intersections along the route. These intersections treatments have including installation of traffic signals, improving the safety of trail users whilst maintaining priority for road traffic and changing the priority to give trail users priority over road traffic. Through the involvement of the local school communities not only has before and after data been collected in regard to volumes and speeds, information on the perceived safety of these treatments and behavior change has also been able to be collected.
A major barrier to the success of the trail has been the at-grade, uncontrolled crossing of the Calder Highway. To overcome this, an underpass is currently being developed utilizing the existing Bendigo Creek to provide the linkage between the shared path and into the Bendigo CBD via a proposed on-road separated path.
Wayfinding signage has also been a key element to raise the profile of the trail and encourage greater use.
A number of projects have been undertaken to separate cyclists from vehicles at key locations to improve safety. These include a range of different roundabout treatments, linemarking and raised kerbs. Examples of these will be presented and discussed.
Biography: Brett Martini has worked in Local Government for 20 years, working at a number of rural and regional Councils in Victoria. Brett is currently employed at the City of Greater Bendigo as Manager Asset Planning and Design. In this role he leads a team of civil engineers and landscape architects in the development and design of a range of civic projects. This includes the development of the five year capital works program for civil infrastructure, cycling, landscape and open space projects.
Brett has been actively involved in a number of innovative cycling projects at the City of Greater Bendigo and is leading the 28km extension of the O'Keefe Rail Trail.
Assessment of the Effectiveness of On-road Bicycle Lanes at Roundabouts in Australia and New Zealand
In comparison to other forms of intersection control, roundabouts have been shown to have lower crash rates. However, the risk for bicyclists relative to motorists is higher at roundabouts than at other intersection types, and especially so in countries such as the UK, Australia and New Zealand, where the design prioritises capacity over safety.
In an effort to address this, some road controlling authorities in Australia and New Zealand have implemented bicycle lanes up to, through and departing roundabouts. However, there is conflicting evidence about the safety effect of such treatments. Given the divergent views about the safety of bicycle lanes at roundabouts, there is a need to develop evidence-based guidance on their application.
This paper reports on the results of research commissioned by Austroads. A review of the relevant literature, and crash analysis based on state road crash databases, was undertaken. The objective was to identify the pertinent variables worthy of testing in the fieldwork (e.g. traffic volume, cyclist volume, vehicle speed, geometric layout). From this list of relevant variables, the measures of effectiveness that are to be measured (e.g. speed, lateral vehicle / cyclist tracking or levels of conflict) were identified. These measures and the levels of precision required, determined the appropriate sample sizes and help set the criteria for selecting the sites for fieldwork.
The data were analysed to build a picture of the relative importance of each of the variables, and to ascertain the effectiveness of bicycle lanes at various types of roundabouts. The study findings formed the basis of well-considered industry guidance.
This paper builds on Tony Barton's presentation “Providing for Cyclists at Roundabouts - Integrate or Separate?” that was given at the 2011 Bike Futures conference.
Biography: Axel holds an ME (Civil) from Canterbury University and has been active as a traffic engineer and transport planner in New Zealand since 1998. He specialises in sustainable transportation, urban traffic engineering, traffic signals, road safety and intersection modelling. He is a director of ViaStrada Limited, a consultancy based in Christchurch.
Breakout Sessions - Friday 19 October
The New Inventors: Evaluating the innovations
What are sharrows and what does the research tell us?
Malcolm Daff Consulting
A ‘Sharrow' is a popular term coined in San Francisco to describe a bicycle icon with arrows or a ‘shared use lane pavement marking arrow' which indicates to bike riders and motorists that the lane is shared between these two types of road user.
Since their 1993 introduction in Denver they have been subject to more than seven major US before and after studies. In the US they have often been used to encourage bike riders to track clear of the car door zone and to alert motorists that they are required to share the road with cyclists. The studies have concentrated on video recording of the lateral tracking of cyclists and motorists, and observing the severity of the manoeuvres to avoid collisions between the two types of road users.
In Australia traffic lanes have been marked with isolated bicycle symbols whose purposes are much the same as the sharrow - the yellow coloured Bicycle Awareness Zone symbol in Queensland and the white wide kerbside lane symbol in Victoria. Before and after studies have monitored the effects of these markings.
The results of these before and after studies have varied from very significant improvements to bike and motorist tracking and interactions, to no real change at all. This paper concentrates on the five Australian studies including a 2012 VicRoads sponsored before and after study of the effects of sharrows on three local residential streets in the inner northern suburbs of Melbourne. In each of the three streets sharrows were located to encourage cyclists to claim the lane and to ride in single file with motorists. The views of bike riders were obtained by kerbside interviews in each of the three streets.
Biography: Malcolm Daff has undertaken many studies of the ways cyclists and pedestrians cope with motorised traffic. In particular he has a special interest in the design of infrastructure that is helpful to these vulnerable road users.
A Car is 1.9m wide. How much extra space does it really need?
Alistair McDonaldDownload Full Abstract
City of Yarra
The paper summarises the innovative approach that the City of Yarra has been undertaking in the last decade to maximise bicycle facilities in order to improve conditions for cyclists. This has been done by calming traffic, reallocating roadspace, implementing 40km/hr speed limits on 90% of local roads and various other non-standard treatments. Together, these measures aim to provide a more conducive environment for cycling.
Yarra has carefully interpreted the Australian Guidelines to implement 2.5m wide traffic lane widths. This innovative approach has meant that Yarra has been able to install bicycle lanes, most of which are wider than 1.5m, on approximately 45kms of Yarra's streets. These changes have been achieved through an incremental implementation of road space reallocation and the use of ‘Yarra Standards'. While the Australian Guidelines, designed essentially for greenfields sites, indicate that the minimum width of a traffic lane should be 3.0m, Yarra has typically implemented 2.5-2.8m traffic lanes. This method has allowed Yarra to install wide bicycle lanes while traditional doctrine would dictate that either no bicycle lane or only a narrow bicycle lane could be provided. These works have meant that vehicle tracking has become more consistent, traffic speeds lowered and cyclists given more separation thus creating a safer environment for all users.
The roadspace reallocation has been implemented incrementally in the last 10 years whenever a road was relinemarked and has resulted in 6.4% of Yarra residents cycling to work in 2006. As works have been ‘low impact' and implemented gradually it has meant that very little consultation has been required, little parking has been lost and no negative publicity has been received. Due to the high quality facilities in Yarra and the resultant improvements in cyclist numbers, Yarra is now contemplating a project in which we may remove parking to begin the next phase of improving bicycle facilities in Yarra.
Biography: Alistair was employed at Yarra over a year ago to specifically deliver road based bicycle infrastructure in a new position created from the new Bicycle Strategy. He has worked in both the public and private sectors most notably as a traffic and construction engineer. While not dominating the local Cyclocross races, Alistair is responsible for delivering a new or upgraded high quality separated bicycle route each year. His interests lie in priority for cyclists, increased separation for cyclists and he believes that a 2.8m traffic lane can trimmed down for a wider bicycle lane.
Protecting the Cyclist and the Environment
Our company has developed in consultation with Bicycle Victoria a number of smart solutions for cycle ways. These include skid resistant surfaces for elevated structures and protective treatments where cycle paths that are in close proximity to steel traffic barriers.in keeping with improviong the quality of the environment, Replas uses locally made recyled plastic materials to create its solutions. The recyled plastic waste is diverted from landfill and turned into a resource. There are many examples across Australia and in particlar around Melbourne where the Replas solutions have been used with great success. Innovative products and materials being used to create for innovative solutions for cyclists. Our Enduroplank has been chosen for the shared pathway structure on the new Peninsula Project. Replas is also keen to hear from cyclists about other potential applications for our products. Our signage is used extensively on cycleways and shared pathways across Melbourne.
Biography: Peter is the National Business Development Manager for Replas and has been with the company for over 6 years. Replas is one of Australia's leading plastic recycling companies. The company uses plastic waste from domestic and industrial sources to make a wide variety of products from large range of outdoor applications. Peter has been instrumental in the growth of the company and has actively sought like minded businesses to promote recycling. Peter has been involved in a range of innovative businesses and presents at a range of industry forums on environmental issues. Peter is passionate about the environment and impact of waste on its quality. Peter regularly speaks at local and national forums on how communities can use their waste more effectively and preserve our natural resources.eynalMa
How to make it easier to switch mode
The hierarchy of needs for end-of-trip of facilities
End-of-bicycle-trip facilities are the full stop at the end of a sentence of infrastructure.
A well placed full stop can make or break your story.
The hierarchy of needs for end-of-trip of facilities has been turned upside down to make facilities cheaper, more practical to install and more effective for bike riders.
Focusing on workplaces and privately owned space, one of our Bike Parking Experts will discuss the hierarchy of needs, how to effectively fulfill it and give some examples of industry best practice.
Biography: Alexander Hender has 4 years of construction industry experience as well as qualifications in Commerce, Politics and Sustainability Science. His work with Bicycle Network has seen nearly a million dollar spent on end-of-trip facilities in the pursuit of more people cycling more often.
Bike facility development: community consultation and academic involvement
Corey Peterson & Emma Pharo
University of Tasmania
The University of Tasmania ratified its Sustainable Transport Strategy (STS) 2012-2016 in February 2012. The STS commits UTAS to initiatives to increase the use of sustainable transport options by students, staff and visitors with special recognition that bicycling is a viable mode of transport .
To fulfil these commitments, UTAS pursues projects that provide operational outcomes and “active learning” opportunities for UTAS students. Such projects are undertaken through the Academic-Operations Sustainability Integration Program (AOSIP) with UTAS Sustainability, in this instance, partnering with the Schools of Geography and Environmental Studies (SGES) and Architecture & Design (SA&D) to deliver this bike facility project. Using data collected from the cycling community via an online survey and observational counts, SGES student planners were able to highlight the campus areas of greatest need for the pilot bike facility. They also identified the facilities that the user community identified as desirable formore frequent cycling as well as to encourage new cyclists. Based on the locations identified and equipped with Bicycle Victoria's ‘The Bicycle Parking Handbook', SA&D students designed various end-of-trip facilities, including using different ‘locking point' types (e.g., hoops, racks, hanging hooks), secure and unsecured parking, lockers and electric bike charging stations supported by a built-in photovoltaic system.
Resulting designs were reviewed by a panel of operational and academic staff as well Bicycle Tasmania and Cycling South. With $100,000 committed from the UTAS Parking Fund and $10,000 support from the Tasmania Government's Cycling for Active Transport - Local Infrastructure Development Fund, the pilot project was delivered in two stages, with the individual bike lockers delivered at the beginning of 2012 and the much larger UTAS Bike Hub coming on line in mid-2012.
Aside from delivering useful facilities for the University, this project and other academic-operations projects have allowed students to engage with their community and undertake activities and develop skills in demand with employers, widen their professional networks and, significantly, fulfil their desires to directly help address the University's sustainability goals.
Corey spent most of the 90's working in Antarctica as a scientist, lab manager and marine science technician. While continuing to do summer work in Antarctica until 2008, from 1998 he started working at a local college. Working with students and staff, the first photovoltaic system was installed on a school in Tasmania, a 165,000 litre stormwater collection system, four solar hot water systems, a food garden and energy efficiency improvements. These efforts were recognised with a 2008 Community Achievement Award and a 2009 Tasmanian Award for Environmental Excellence in 2009.
In 2010, Corey became the Sustainability Manager at the University of Tasmania, charged with improving their sustainability performance in areas such as energy, water, transport, biodiversity, the built environment, and resource recovery. Corey is also President of Sustainable Living Tasmania and a mentor (and graduate) in the Tasmanian Leaders Program with Masters Degrees in Environmental Science and Public Administration.
Emma is Facilities Development Manager of Bicycle Tasmania and advocates for improvement to bike infrastructure around the state. She is also an academic at the University of Tasmania (UTAS) with teaching and research interests in campus sustainability, particularly active transport. Emma collaborates with Corey Peterson on the Academic Operations Sustainability Integration Program at UTAS to give students authentic learning opportunities as well as improve UTAS performance on a range of sustainability indicators. Her two positions work well together to provide an active link between knowledge generation at UTAS and policy and programs of government and industry.
Cycling Promotion Fund
The Infrastructure, the Horse and the Water
You Can Lead the Horse to Water...
Cancer Council Victoria
It may have worked for Kevin Costner in Field of Dreams, but in the real world is it enough to have a strategy based solely on the notion of “build it and they will come"? How do we motivate people to take on health-promoting behaviours in a world with so many competing demands? Todd Harper has built a career around changing behaviour successfully, particularly in tobacco control, where smoking in Victoria is at the lowest level it has ever been. In this session, he will introduce some basic behaviour change principles, and draw on his experience in tobacco control and other public health issues to demonstrate how these principles can be applied most effectively to deliver a world where more people are cycling more often.
Biography: Todd has been CEO of Cancer Council Victoria since April 2011, following roles as CEO of VicHealth and Executive Director of Quit Victoria. During his time at Quit, Todd was responsible for the development and execution of health promotion campaigns to reduce the incidence of smoking in Australia and he has since applied this experience to a range of public health issues, from family violence, to alcohol and promoting active lifestyles. Todd is an active cyclist and passionate advocate for a healthy lifestyle, cycling to and from work daily, and frequently participating in organised road rides. His proudest sporting achievement is conquering Bicycle Network Victoria's Three Peaks Challenge in April this year, though he hopes to top that when he tackles the Pyrenees while visiting the Tour de France in 2013.
You can lead the horse to water...
Liam Smith, PhD
Many behaviour change organisations focus on the provision of infrastructure to support desirable behaviours. While it is necessary for behaviour change agents to ensure that the infrastructure is there so desirable behaviours are easy to do, there is also the need for supporting this with communication that includes messages that go beyond stating the ease of performing the behaviour. In this presentation Liam Smith, Director of BehaviourWorks Australia based at Monash University, will present and discuss the many known predictors of behaviour and show that making desirable behaviours easy is just the beginning in achieving behaviour change.
Biography: Liam is the Director of BehaviourWorks Australia. He completed his PhD in 2008 examining the role of emotions in influencing human behaviour. Most of Liam's research has been conducted in collaboration with industry and he has published widely on behaviour change and has received several accolades for his research, including acceptance into Monash University's Research Accelerator program. He has received two ARC Linkage grants and has published over 50 peer-reviewed journal articles, book chapters and reports on human behaviour and behaviour change.
Getting routes right: The right thing in the right place for the right reason
Level of Service Tool for Bike Facilities
Jason den Hollander
Bicycle Network Victoria
Bicycle Level of Service Assessment
An accumulative points based tool for assessing the LOS of bike facilities
A measurement system to identify the varying Level of Service across the range of Bicycle Facilities which can be used as a standalone audit.
It was originally developed to be incorporated into the VicRoads SmartRoads Network Operating Plan.
By using an accumulative points based system we can better capture variations in facilities across the network.
Whilst points have been allocated with relative weightings it is important to understand that it is the total score that matters.
This helped to establish a baseline of relativity between differing facilities and how riders would perceive them, and to reflect the likely vehicle (rider) throughput of a route.
and also how they relate to each other and give a more measurement based approach when considering investment in routes to attract greater rider numbers.
By providing a more articulate facility measurement scale this system can help direct investment in the greater cost-benefit-ratio projects
Biography: With a Dutch heritage it was inevitable that Jason would find himself working with bikes eventually. 15 plus years’ experience solving clients problems in communications in the world of Advertising and Design put Jason in good stead to work with stakeholders trying to get the Bicycle Network built. With a background in looking at a scenario from a different perspective, Jason loves knowing every day brings a new challenge and getting to work with individuals and organisations who genuinely want to help get more people cycling more often.
Bicycle Critical Route Corridors
VicRoads have developed the concept of bicycle Critical Route Corridors (CRCs) to facilitate network wide planning for bicycle facilities. The aim of the CRCs are to provide a guided approach to bicycle facility planning by determining the strategic importance and value of corridors, as opposed to the traditional ad-hoc or easy options first approach which has characterised bicycle facility development in the past.
The purpose of each Critical Route Corridor (CRC) is to identify all opportunities, constraints, options, alternatives, benefits and cost within the corridor, to be used as a project identification mechanism and program management tool for bicycle facilities in Metropolitan Melbourne.
VicRoads have identified the alignment of twelve CRCs located within a 10 kilometre radius of the Melbourne CBD. These corridors cover important cycling routes within inner Melbourne, most of which are already used by cyclists. However the CRC evaluation process is useful in identifying gaps in the network, and prioritising them in order of importance in attracting new riders.
To date, two of CRCs have been evaluated: CRC4 which links the north-west suburbs (Keilor/Avondale) to the CBD, and CRC9 which links the eastern suburbs (Canterbury / Mont Albert) to the CBD.
The studies have included assessments of:
• Trip generators and attractors within the corridor.
• Geographic and physical barriers within the corridor.
• Current and future proposed land uses.
• Demographic data, including socio-economic assessments and mode share analysis.
• Transport alternatives that exist within the corridor.
• Assessment of existing cycling facilities within the CRC.
• Assessment of strategic documents such as the PBN, PBR and council strategies.
• Any social and political sensitivities that may exist within the corridor at the state and council level.
The presentation will discuss what has been learnt to date from the first two CRC projects including the benefits of developing route corridors before identifying individual projects. Furthermore, it will consider how this network wide planning approach can be replicated elsewhere to benefit cyclists through identification of whole trip facilities.
Biography: Katie Dickson is a Program Consultant in the VicRoads Bicycle & Pedestrian Program team. As well as coordinating the funding and strategic planning of bicycle infrastructure on the Principal Bicycle Network, the team also provides advice on design standards and contributes to the development of strategic Government cycling documents. She has extensive experience in local government transport planning from previous roles in Central London (Camden Council) and Melbourne (City of Darebin). She started her career working for Sustrans (sustainable transport organisation) in the UK, coordinating the construction of the National Cycle Network of Great Britain, and initiating the development of Safe Routes to Schools in London.
Cyclist route choice: How valued are protected bicycle lanes?
Much effort has been expended in recent years to increase the level of separation for bicycle riders on roadways using protected kerbside running lanes. Where such lanes have been introduced, such as along Swanston Street and Albert Street in Melbourne, significant increases in rider demand has been observed.
This paper will describe a research effort undertaken with VicRoads and the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads to quantify these preferences. In so doing, the objective is to forecast demand for proposed separated cycleways. These demand estimates can in turn be used to estimate the economic value of a project to allow decisions to be made on the viability of particular projects and the prioritisation of those that have merit.
The research consists of revealed preference data obtained from intercept surveys and the RiderLog iPhone app produced by Bicycle Network Victoria in combination with a sophisticated stated preference survey.
Biography: Cameron Munro has worked in transport consulting in the UK and Australia. He has a background in transport modelling and demand forecasting, and more recently in bicycle planning studies. His objective is to help develop an evidence base for cycling infrastructure design, and so help build the case for greater investment in cycling.
Bikes and Public Transport on the road: How we can all thrive together
Bike and bus interactions: the perceptions of drivers and riders
Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney
Bicycles and buses are both sustainable alternatives to private motor vehicle travel that can potentially play an important role in reducing congestion and transport based pollution. Despite these similarities buses and bikes also have significant differences based on size, manoeuvrability and stopping patterns that can lead to difficulties when these two modes interact on urban roads. Past low cycling numbers have minimised these interactions, but with recent rapid growth in cycling numbers, as well as steady growth in bus patronage, it is increasingly important for these two road users to establish norms of behaviour that can ensure that they can interact in safe and harmonious ways.
This paper details the results of a social research project conducted with bike riders and bus drivers in Sydney. The research surveyed 405 bike riders and 112 bus drivers, investigating their experiences of interacting with one another on Sydney streets. The survey used an Appreciative Inquiry methodology to focus on examples of behaviour that was appreciated by the other road user group and could lead to improved road interactions between the two groups.
The results showed that amongst both bike riders and bus drivers over half the respondents were uncomfortable interacting with the other group. The research also found that issues relating to overtaking (in the street, around bus stops and at intersections) were found to be a particular cause of concern. The research also identified a range of behaviours, in particular improved communication, that if undertaken would improve the road conditions for both groups.
Biography: Tim is a social researcher and transport planner at the Institute for Sustainable Futures. Tim's cycling work has included analysis of cyclist behaviour at intersections on Sydney's new cycleway network and the interaction between buses and bikes. In the broader transport field Tim has recently completed a stakeholder research project for the National Transport Commission investigating the long term future of urban passenger transport. Tim has also worked on developing tools for public transport decision making, developing methodologies for assessing public transport marketing, travel planning for development precincts and analysing Oil Vulnerability in outer suburban areas.
How bike riders cope with raised tram stops
To comply with the Disability Discrimination Act (1992) and Disability Standards for Accessible Public Transport (2002), Melbourne has introduced a range of unconventional tram stops that operate in mixed traffic environments. All the new stops feature level access at the doorways but vary in the way that trams, general traffic, bicycles and tram passenger access are managed. This paper describes the initial monitoring of three of these new stop types. The presentation focuses on the initial monitoring of these stops particularly their effects on bike riders. Three types of tram stop are presented:
1. The kerb extension stop incorporates the extension of the footpath to the tram tracks with general traffic running along the tram tracks and bikes ramped up across the front of the platform – eg High Street Northcote.
2. The trafficable tram stop incorporates the raising of the roadway to the left of the tram tracks to form a platform providing level access to the doors. General traffic travels across the platform while passengers wait on the footpath which is also level with the new platform. Similar to traditional kerbside stops, general traffic is required to stop when a stationary tram is present to allow passengers to board and alight the tram – eg Macarthur Street East Melbourne
3. Similar to the trafficable tram stop but cars and bicycles are also permitted on the tram tracks as well as over the platform - eg Bridge Road Richmond.
For the second and third types of stops surveys were conducted before and after conventional stops were converted to trafficable tram stops. Monitoring included interviews with tram passengers and cyclists, and video observations of vehicle tracking, cyclist behaviour, and compliance of drivers with stopping requirements and keep clear pavement markings. Changes in tram passenger boarding and alighting behaviours were also recorded as was tram travel times. Monitoring of the kerb extension stops was less formal and included on site videos after construction and interviews with tram passengers and cyclists.
The presentation concludes with a brief look at the design of bus stops and bus lanes with the needs of bike riders in mind.
Biography: Antony graduated in civil engineering with a strong interest in transportation that developed through his personal experience as a bus commuter. Since graduation he has undertaken a wide range of projects including several which have looked at the operation of cyclists within the traffic stream.
Bus Lanes and Other Modes
The need to move more people on a road network with limited road space and competing demands continues to be a key challenge for those responsible for managing the road network. Allocating road space to high occupancy vehicles, such as buses, is one way of increasing the throughput of the road. However, allowing others to also use the bus lane may make better use of available road space and provide some benefit to other road users.
VicRoads has been investigating the potential use of bus lanes by other modes of transport, including bicycles. Bicycles (and motor vehicles) are permitted to travel in a bus lane to either enter or leave the roadway or if there is a sign indicating that bicycles are permitted to travel in the bus lane. Whilst bicycles (and some other modes) are currently permitted to travel in a limited number of Victorian bus lanes, it is recognised that there is a need for a more standardised approach to the use of bus lanes by bicycles and other modes.
The concept of other road users being permitted to travel in bus lanes is not new, with a national and international literature review identifying a number of overseas countries and other Australian states that permit a variety of other users. Following consideration of a range of issues including the impact on bus operations, intersection operations, legislation and consistency, enforcement and safety, it is believed that a limited number of road user groups, including bicycles, could be allowed greater access to bus lanes.
This presentation will outline VicRoads' draft policy position on the use of bus lanes by other modes of transport and discuss the development and basis of the draft policy position.
Biography: Tania McClure is a senior integrated transport engineer at VicRoads. Her role is to develop policies, standards, guidelines and processes that promote the inclusion of bicycles, pedestrians, buses and trams in VicRoads road projects. Tania has a Bachelor of Engineering (Civil) and has also been responsible for the planning, design and construction of numerous road improvement projects during her 12 years with VicRoads. Tania has also worked in local government and the private sector.
Smart Decisions from Smart technology
Investing in cycling: an investment in mode shift
The Office of Senator Scott Ludlam
Why is it, only when faced with global economic disaster that cycling is deemed worthy of federal transport funding?
In 2008 the Australian Greens secured $40 million for cycling as part of the stimulus package. Since then the federal government has repeatedly rejected the Greens call for an $80 million annual investment in cycling infrastructure across Australia.
The National Cycling Strategy, agreed to by state and federal governments, set a target to double the rate of cycling by 2016, with no funding attached. In fact, transport budgets across Australia continue to be fixated on private vehicle use and neglect cycling; putting lives at risk and further entrenching our culture of car dependence. The Greens are working to change that.
To support the case for federal funding and lobby state governments to increase their cycling expenditure, Senator Ludlam developed an iPhone application that enables cyclists to send information about the deficiencies in their local bike network directly to the state and federal transport ministers. The information and photos are compiled on a map available at www.bikeblackspot.org which can be used for planning and maintenance. This innovative community engagement strategy is being used to shift policy and funding decisions at all levels of government and has received a positive response across Australia.
Senator Ludlam used this crowd sourcing communications tool help develop the 2029 WA Bike Vision which proposes how to achieve a 15% cycling mode share in WA by 2029, up from just 1.2% in 2006. This ambitious target can be reached with a sustained investment in infrastructure, changes to planning policies and a range of education and behaviour change programs. The full proposal will be available at www.scottludlam.org.au/bikevision
Biography: Senator Scott Ludlam is the Australian Greens' spokesperson for Infrastructure and Sustainable Cities. Elected in November 2007, he is one of ten Australian Greens in the current Parliament.
Recognizing Australia's need to switch to a low carbon economy, Scott is committed to creating a resilient and equitable future, in which all Australians benefit from the jobs and wealth created through harnessing our renewable resources and building sustainable communities.
Obtaining detailed route choice information using RiderLog
Automatic and manual cyclist counts provide an indication of the number of riders on a particular link or at an intersection. However, this data does not directly contribute to an understanding of the route choices riders are making, and the origins and destinations of their trips. An understanding of the distribution of bicycle trips across the network, and of the routes chosen by riders, is important for the prioritisation of cycling infrastructure.
Asking riders about the routes they have used, and the origins and destinations of their trips, is a time consuming and laborious process. Interview methods are also subject to respondent recall problems, as riders may not accurately describe their route. The RiderLog iPhone app produced by Bicycle Network Victoria avoids many of these issues and provides the highest quality data available on rider route choices in Australia. The GPS traces can be matched to a road network, allowing for much greater understanding of the detailed routes chosen by riders, from where they start their trips and to where they travel. This presentation will discuss a method of processing this data to produce maps of rider routes to assist with planning decisions.
Biography: Cameron Munro has worked in transport consulting in the UK and Australia. He has a background in transport modelling and demand forecasting, and more recently in bicycle planning studies. His objective is to help develop an evidence base for cycling infrastructure design, and so help build the case for greater investment in cycling.
The Time Speed Relationship
‘Speed' – not in my backyard!
We all value our time, but at what cost? In many Australian cities with a strong car culture, perceived driver delays are often disproportionate to actual delays. It has long been known that speed on our roads is a significant determinant in the severity of injury sustained in road accidents. Lowering speeds within our neighbourhoods is one tool to address this.
With the findings of the 2011 Victorian Speed Limit Review due to be released imminently, this presentation will consider the potential for speed management to act as ‘hidden infrastructure' that can protect cyclists. Residential neighbourhoods belong to the whole community, for people of all ages and abilities, and establishing a greater sense of traffic safety within these areas is essential if cycling is to increase.
From a neighbourhood perspective, we don't like vehicles travelling fast in front of our houses, so why would we want that in front of another person's house? International sentiment towards vehicle speeds in neighbourhoods will be highlighted in this presentation, using the preliminary findings from the International Transport Forum's Working Group on Cycling Safety. Additionally, research from the European Cyclists' Federation and concepts such as Canada's ‘Complete Streets', North America's ‘Road Diets' and the Dutch ‘Woonerfs' will be considered with respect to their effectiveness in managing speed.
On a local front, it is recognised that education and changing driver behaviour is equally as important as physical Local Area Traffic Management (LATM) infrastructure in limiting vehicle speeds in the longer term. This raises the questions of: Is LATM still the right way to go? Do we need a different approach? What are the barriers and obstacles to achieve this? In considering these questions, reference will also be made to before-and-after studies on the effectiveness of electronic school speed zone signs in reducing vehicle speeds at two inner urban locations in Melbourne.
Biography: Phil Gray, Senior Project Manager
Phil Gray is a Senior Project Manager at GTA Consultants and has over eleven years experience in the field of traffic and transport planning within the UK, Ireland and Australia, with a focus on active transport, design, transport planning and road safety.
Phil is committed to bicycle advocacy and developing bicycle treatments conducive to the advancement of cycling in Melbourne and beyond. Phil has a particular interest in providing infrastructure and improving safety for vulnerable road users to encourage a positive mode shift through integrated path networks, innovative treatments, safety initiatives and wayfinding strategies. Phil is a volunteer member of the Bicycle Wayfinding Working Group (BWWG).
He recently presented at Velo-City 2012 in Vancouver, regarding a proactive approach to managing the risks associated with cycling and shared path networks.
The Urban Speed Paradox: cycling, time pressure, and health
The impact of speed on health is far more subtle and pervasive than simply its effect on road safety. Increasing the speed and volume of car traffic contributes to ill-health through its impacts on local air pollution, greenhouse gas production, inactivity, obesity and social isolation. In addition to these impacts, a heavy reliance on cars as a supposedly ‘fast' mode of transport exacerbates time pressures. Time pressure is an everyday experience for most residents of modern cities. It is also a major health issue. While motorists and traffic planners typically respond to this pressure with attempts to increase the speed of cars, this strategy is counterproductive. An increase in the speed of motorised traffic in cities is likely to lead to the loss of money, time and health. It is the ‘slower', active modes of transport such as cycling that provide city residents with more time for healthy behaviours. Transport policies that lead to ease of movement for cyclists will save time and money, and increase the health of both individuals and cities. This paradox can be resolved through an understanding of the concept of ‘effective speed'.
This paper is based on research outlined in a chapter in a new book on city cycling:
Tranter, P. 2012, “Effective Speed: Cycling because it's faster”, Chapter 4 in Pucher, J. and Buehler, R. (Eds) City Cycling, MIT Press.
Biography: Dr Paul Tranter
Paul is an Associate Professor in geography in the School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences at UNSW Canberra (the Australian Defence Force Academy), where his research and teaching interests are in transport geography and global change. Paul has made a pioneering contribution to research in child-friendly environments, active transport, and healthy and sustainable cities. He has forged new areas of research by combining hitherto unlinked research topics (e.g. children's rights and peak oil), or by applying innovative concepts to urban transport (e.g. “effective speed”, a concept that considers the total time costs associated with any mode of transport). An important theme in his research is how child-friendly environments can make cities more resilient in the face of challenges such as energy stress. This issue is examined in a recent book Paul co-authored with Claire Freeman – Children and Their Urban Environment: Changing Worlds.
A note from Professor Ross Garnaut…
“It is good fun and I’ve done it all my life. I ride to the MCG most weekends in winter to pick up a game and in summer I will get down to a few days of the main Tests and international games.”
Professor Garnaut, a former Lihir Gold chairman, doesn’t go in for the latest in carbon fibre. “I’m a real amateur. It’s just an ordinary old thick-tyred mountain bike that you can’t damage very much,” he says.
Speaking at the Bike Futures Conference at the MCG, he says bikes must become part of the national infrastructure conversation.
“Without transformational thinking and transformational investment our big cities will grind to a halt,” he says. “The infrastructure involved is tiny, and the investment required ... bikes are only part of the story, and a modest part of the story, but its a low-hanging fruit.”
Professor Garnaut, who authored the government’s review of climate change, cites the potential benefit of cycling for greenhouse gas emissions.
“Proportionally, if as many residents of the major cities of Australia rode bikes to work as they do in the bike friendly cities of Europe then this would contribute noticeably to our mitigation task.”
Professor Garnaut says the big picture also involves public transport and electric cars.
“The next few years are going to provide a good opportunity for low- cost electrification of transport, because we are going to have quite a lot of surplus electricity at very low cost for most of the day.”
View some photos from the Conference here.^ top